Includes bibliographical refernces and index.
|Statement||by D. Bethell and V. Gold.|
R. Scott Obach, A.S. Kalgutkar, in Comprehensive Toxicology, Carbocations. Carbocations (carbonium ions) are species with positively charged carbon centers and are highly reactive hard formed during the metabolism of xenobiotics, they are generally short-lived because they can readily react with water to form alcohols. The carbonium ion’s charge is not stable, and the acid sites on the catalyst are not strong enough to form many carbonium ions. Nearly all the cat cracking chemistry is carbenium ion chemistry. A carbenium ion, R CH 2 +, comes either from adding a positive charge to an olefin or from removing a hydrogen and two electrons from a paraffin (Eqs. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Carbonium Ions, an Introduction by Donald Bethell and V. Gold (, Hardcover) at the best . Carbonium Ions on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
ISBN: OCLC Number: Notes: Includes index. Description: xii, pages: illustrations ; 24 cm. Contents: v. 1. General aspects and. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Olah, George A. (George Andrew), Carbonium ions. New York, Interscience Publishers  (OCoLC) Summary This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Alkyl Cations Ricycloalkyl and Polycycloalkyl Cations Cyclopropyl Carbonium Ions Alkenyl Cations of the Allylic Type Cyclopropenyl Cation. Definitions. A carbocation was previously often called a carbonium ion but chemists question the exact meaning. In present-day chemistry, a carbocation is any positively charged carbon atom. Two special types have been suggested: carbenium ions are trivalent and carbonium ions are pentavalent or hexavalent. University level textbooks only discuss carbocations as if they are carbenium ions, or.
“Such organic ions carrying a positive charge on Carbon-atom are known as Carbonium ion or Carbocations.” These are named by adding the ‘Carbonium ion’ after the name of parent alkyl group. There are also termed as Primary, secondary & tertiary depending upon the nature of Carbon-atom bearing positive charge. +5 or +6 in the carbonium ions (protonated alkanes, named by analogy to ammonium). This nomenclature was proposed by G. A. Olah. University-level textbooks discuss carbocations only as if they are carbenium ions, or discuss carbocations with a fleeting reference to the older phrase of carbonium ion or carbenium and carbonium ions. Carbonium ions are carbocations with a pentacoordinated carbon atom, where the electronic octet is maintained. They possess a three center two electron bond in order to keep the tetravalence of. The disclosure describes a process for the production of a cellulosic feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and/or a lignin fraction for chemicals production, characterized in that a) the raw material is lignocellulosic biomass b) the biomass is treated in hot water c) at least one Cited by: 1.